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New Russia. History of the region - the main milestones of the chronicles

Briefly about the residents. Until the middle of the XI century, the area was inhabited by Buzhane, Uglich, Tivertsy, Torquay, Pechenegs, Khazars. Until the middle of the XIII century, Cumans were the dominant population. Later, the south-western part was the occupied by Lithuanians, and the rest was roaming Tatars, who contributed to the treatment of the country in the steppe.

With the beginning of the XVI century Cossacks are in the north-western part, the rest of the territory of the Black Sea from the river Cyanosis to the river Dnieper, and then to the Sea of Azov, was an inhabited vast steppe until the 1740s.

The Cossacks believed that the whole region, up to the Don Cossack villages, was their, because the idea of joining Malorussia to Russia passed on to the Russian Tsars. In 1705, commissars gathered at the headwaters of the Bug: Russian – Yemelyan, Ukrainians and Turkish - Koch-Mehemet they held the border between Russia and Turkey on the Polish lands by the Bug to Tashlykov, on steppe to the Dnieper River at the confluence in it Kamenki river. The same border, with a few changes at the Polish limits was adopted in the 1740th year. The beginning of settling the land can be considered by small towns of the Little Russian Cossacks and Russian fugitives, formed around 1745, on the border of Malorussia, and Poland. 

From these and other settlers region was divided into two parts:

  1. New Serbia (from the Dnieper to Siniukha), bordered to the north-west with the Polish lands to the south with the Turkish-Tartar steppe, city Novomyrhorod;

  2. Slavyanoserbiya, east of the Dnieper River, along the Ukrainian line to the village of Don Cossacks, with the main city and the fortress Bakhmut boolean (now Konstantinograd). 

Edge management was in the hands of General Glebov and colonels mentioned above. In 1760 population of the province exceeded to 26,000 souls, there were 122 villages, 135 "cottages for settlements" and 31 churches. The first settlers tied trade with Turkey and the Crimea, releasing there products iron and iron utensils, nails, rope, canvas, oil and cattle, in exchange receiving fleece, cotton paper, incense, fruit, wine and weapons. In 1754, the first fair was set in the fortress of St. Elizabeth's. In 1764, Novoserbsky Corps (at the time all of the male generation settlers were recorded in gycapskie shelves) was transformed into the Novorossiysk province, and Slavyanoserbiya line with Ukrainian - Catherine's in the province, subordinate Novorossiysk province. At the same time Ukrainian line was destroyed and instead were arranged two fortresses: Bogoroditsk and Lugansk. Entire space of Novoserbii (1421000 etc.) was divided into 7 districts, at 100 sites in each (size 52 for military personnel). The next year province was already out of the three provinces: Elizabeth, Catherine and Bakhmutskaya. The number of settlers, numbering in the 1764 was up to 38,000 people, with the arrival of new colonists with the permission to settle dissenters, after 4 years number of settlers had increased to 52,000 people, not counting officials, nobles, spiritual and military officials regularly in service in the hussar regiments and pikinernyh. All together, there were about 100,000 people. Since the first Turkish War (1768-74), the colonists took an active part in all the wars of Russia XVIII and early XIX centuries. In 1769, the year after the capture of Azov and Taganroghere here were organized special Cossack regiments from the settlers and their Russian Voronezh and Belgorod Provinces, and next year arranged for the separation Novorossiysk province from Tatar new possessions - Dnieper line of fortresses (St. Peter, Zakharievskaya, Alekseevskaya Cyril, Grigoryevskaya, Nikitinskaya and Alexander).

In the 1774th year, the boundaries of the Novorossiysk Territory greatly expanded to the south, by Kucuk Kainardjiski. Zaporozhye joined it in 1775. The former at this time Novorossiysk Governor General Earl Potemkin shared Novorossiysk Territory into two provinces: Azov (Azov with the provinces and South, and Bakhmutskaya or North). In 1776, the province will add Slavic and Novorossiysk, to which has departed Zaporozhye (with the provinces Elizabethan and Kherson). The boundary between the provinces was the Dnieper. In 1775, established an independent Slavic and Kherson Archdiocese later - Ekaterinoslavskaya and Hersonissos, Tauris.. 

In 1775, it was allowed for Greeks to settle in the New Russia, in the 1772, 15 new regiments were established. By that time New Russia, in case of war could expose more than 10,000 of cavalry.

In 1778, the year were found Ekaterinoslavl and Kherson. In the 1783 Novorossiysk region was named Yekaterinoslav region. Since 1784, the limits of New Russia increased with the annexation of Crimea, from which Tavricheskaya area was formed. B 1787, when the Region was visited by Catherine II, there were more than 700,000 residents. Potemkin has paid special attention to the development of the country's gardening, livestock, agriculture, trade and education. Even after his death, Ochakovskaya area (converted in 1795, the year of the Ascension in the province moved to New Russia), by agreement of Jassy (1791). The Governor-General Kakhovsky, done a lot for the region, he raised a number of fortresses of the Dniester river line from Wet Yagarlyk to Ochakov. In the 1794th, when Odessa was already founded, Yekaterinoslav region, despite the influx of German colonists, barely totaled 500,000 of male inhabitants, that were divided into those who were not paying taxes, preferential and was liberated from payments at all.

Paul I destroyed Yekaterinoslav region and formed Novorossiysk province, separating everything attached to it from Malorussia, Poland and Don Cossacks. According to the 1797, the new province numbered 834959 residents. In 1812, New Russia contained city government - Odessa (1803), Taganrog (1803), and Theodosia (Kerch-Yenikalsky was formed in 1823, the year), and the province - Kherson, Ekaterinoslavskuyu and Tauride, Bessarabia region (acquired by Treaty of Bucharest), foreign colonies (120 villages), a new settlement Cavalry and towns and villages of naval department. About 1 million residents only. The organizers of the Novorossiysk Territory after Potemkin considered the Duke de Richelieu, Langeron and Prince Vorontsov.

Valery Sinkovsky

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