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Dumskaya about us. A plan to restore the castle of the era of Catherine the Great. Near Odessa

Scientists from the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine plan to partially restore the XVIII century fortress, located in Ovidiopol, Odessa area.

From May 26 in district of Lower Dniester, is working an archaeological expedition under the leadership of Doctor of Historical Sciences Igor Sapozhnikov. Over the remains of shafts, ravelins bastions and fortresses, worn during the reign of Catherine II, it has a Turkish name Adzhider (Khadzhider) that stretches along almost 40 meters of the trenches. Previously, experts have made a few pits. In addition, there is also a magnetic survey that is conducted on the territory of the fortification.

In the excavations were discovered the foundations of two large buildings, that were inside the fortress - the store (warehouse), and barracks. In addition, archaeologists have brought to the surface many artifacts of various epochs - from antiquity (the fortress was built on the site of an ancient Greek settlement, most of which appear to be a thing of the Dnestr estuary) and the Middle Ages to modern times. Most of the fragments of ceramics are mostly Hellenic amphorae. There are whole vessels. The most valuable from a scientific point of view finds are coins: three ancient Greek (two Olbian dolphin V-IV century BC and Syracuse rebound to the III century BC), the Golden Horde XIII century, depicting the god of the sky and 2 cents Russian coin of 1816. With the double-headed eagle. By the period of existence of the fortress are also core, rifle bullets, belt buckles, buttons, etc. All the finds, archaeologists put on display in a separate tent for tourists.

In the plans of the expedition is to turn the castle into a museum under the open sky. They want to build up shafts curtain, to deepen the preserved part of the pit, to restore disassembled before last century, retaining walls, maybe even build new barracks and warehouses. However, for the beginning expedition needs to find a sponsor. Initiative for researchers to collaborate with a travel companys, which carries Ovidiopol tourists.

Fortress of Ovidiopol is a part of the so-called Dniester line of fortifications built in the late XVIII century under the leadership of Alexander Suvorov and his colleague Joseph de Ribas on the attached as a result of Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1792 land between the Bug and the Dniester. In today's Odessa region line, except the Adzhider, Odessa fortress was also a part, from which, by the way, is also something is also left. For example, a hill crowned today the so-called Alexander Column was a former bastion ("Suvorov", according to local lore). But in the pit that they made, obtaining the land, construction of the fort, is located stadium "Chernomorets".

The project of the fortress Ovidiopil was planned by Franz de Wolan. It was him, a native of Holland, gave Ovidiopol its current name. Engineer-general found in the excavation an ancient tomb in a stone box, and decided that this is the tomb of the great Roman poet Ovid Publius Nazon (which, in fact, died in present-day Romania), and then persuaded the great Empress to name new town in honor of the ancient writer.

At the highest point of the fortress Adzhider stands a large wooden cross. Locals say that it was established a dozen years ago, a jew from Ovidiopolskij, that was a head of the local Cossack organization.

"For some reason he decided to be a descendant of the Cossacks, so was he became one, - says Nikolay a resident of Ovidiopol. - He read that before Russian troops Turkish Ovidiopol-Adzhider was captured by Cossacks (in 1770, led the campaign "ancestor" of Viktor Yushchenko, the last one of Koschevoi Sechi Peter Kalnyshevsky - Ed.) - And decided to perpetuate their memory. Then he gave up on the idea and emigrated to Israel. But cross was left".

In the first years after the founding of the fortress (1793), and civil settlements Ovidiopol had all the chances to become the administrative, economic and military capital of the Black Sea.

"Chosen from several localities - Hadjibeyan (Odessa), Kherson, Ochakova, Nikolaev and Adzhidere - says the candidate of historical sciences Alexander Prigarin. - Each option had its lobbyists in St. Petersburg - in fact it was where direct finances flew. For example, the chairman of the Black Sea Admiralty Board Nikolay Mordvinov advocated Ochakov, the governor of Tauris Michael Kakhovsky - for Kherson, a favorite of Catherine the Great, Plato Zubov - for Odessa. A final decision has not been made. Everything turned out as a matter. Nikolaev because of its maritime shipyards became a military center, Kherson - administrative, Odessa - economic. Ovidiopol also remained a provincial town - it is too close to the border".

Construction of the Dniester line provoked the first corruption scandal in the history of our region. After the death of Catherine the Great approached her successor Paul I, Fedor Rostopchin began to bombard the emperor denunciations by supervisors, especially Joseph Deribas. According to Rostopchin, only by works in Odessa a nimble Spanish aristocrat earned about half a million rubles a year, representing about 0.5% of total revenues of the Russian Empire! If translated into modern money, it corresponds to several billion dollars. Stolichnaya "roof" Deribas claimed Rostopchin was Plato Zubov (later member of the conspiracy against the king.)

Impatient to corruption in all its manifestations, Paul responded to the signal he ordered an audit in the New Russia. And it fully confirmed the information about Rostopchin, identifying numerous cases of embezzlement and bribery. Angered by the development of the emperor, turned Dniester fortresses and closed financing "of the Odessa project." Zubov sent across the border and confiscated his property in favor of the Treasury. De Wolan was fired, and Deribas summoned to St. Petersburg "on the carpet." Only thanks to the connections of his wife, he was able to get away from the court, got off with a retirement.

Odessa managed to get out also - the chief city of Customs Michael Kirjakov "bent" the local merchants (mostly Greeks) to bribe a grand monarch - almost a ton of extremely expensive at that time oranges. However, having tasted the "oranges" and have mercy, the emperor did not resume direct funding, and the city council gave a loan of 250 thousand rubles for the completion of construction of the port.

"Ovid's Castle" carried much less. Not having received any special status and, therefore, financial investments, Adzhider castle began to decline. "Not more than two hundred houses, on a raised platform constructed trenches to protect grain stores, with three tiers of batteries down to sea level. All of this is called a fortress, but in fact it is - nothing, "- written in 1796, the Sardinian ambassador and scout de La Turbo.

After the dismissal of De Volan and Deribas, construction of the fortress in Ovidiopol just stalled, and the point in the history of Fortress put a Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812. Thanks to the victories of Mikhail Kutuzov, the boundary of Russia moved from the Dniester River Prut and Ovidiopol bastions were not wanted. In 1821, the city was transformed into a fortress quarantine, and in 1849 completely sold at auction. In Soviet times, this place has turned into dumps.

Oleg Konstantinov

Source: http://dumskaya.net

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